Saturday, June 20, 2020

Muckrakers Differing Styles in Upton Sinclair and Eric Schlosser - Literature Essay Samples

The Jungle by Upton Sinclair and Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser are two extremely different books about the same topic: the American food industry. Paired excerpts explore the behind-the-scenes work that goes into processed food and how the industries mislead or deceive the public. However, the authors presentations of the industry and messages are so different from one another as to make them unrelated on all levels except for the topic. Sinclair, a 19th century journalist for a social newspaper, was examining working conditions in Chicago stockyards when he was inspired to write his book. Under the disguise of fiction, he reveals the various disturbing means used by the Chicago meat-packing industry to create canned foods. Bringing up every element of a can of deviled ham from beef tripe to cow gullets, Sinclair spares no nauseating detail in strangely matter-of-fact descriptions like, â€Å"It was a nasty job killing these, for when you plunged your knife into them they would burst and splash foul-smelling stuff into your face; and when a mans sleeves were smeared in blood, and his hands steeped in it, how was he ever to wipe his face, or to clear his eyes so that he could see?† (Sinclair 352). These repulsive details are employed very intentionally to upset the reader and send the authors message. Sinclair even goes as far as to claim that some of the factorys products had â€Å"killed several times as man y United States soldiers as all the bullets of the Spaniards† (Sinclair 352). The book being released only eight years after the Spanish-American War, lines like these make it unsurprising that The Jungle was shunned by all of the publishers the author sought. Sinclair wasnt content with describing every sickening detail about the ingredients in canned meat—he also completed his original purpose, which was to evaluate working conditions. He mentions a shocking variety of ailments prevalent in meat factory workers, from rheumatism to butchered hands to tuberculosis to falling into enormous vats. Regarding the latter, Sinclair concludes with the sickening assertion that workers who came to such a fate were often not found until â€Å"all but the bones of them had gone out to the world as Durhams Pure Leaflard!† (Sinclair 355). Through describing the working conditions and contents of its products, the author thoroughly and completely expresses his disapprobation for the meat-packing industry in this dark and persuasive novel. At times offering a cheery contrast to Sinclairs revolting description of 19th century meat packing, Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser provides insight into, among other topics, the chemistry behind engineered flavors. As a journalist, Schlosser was permitted entrance to the main facility of International Flavors Fragrances (IFF), one of many facilities in the New Jersey industrial parks that he claims manufacture two-thirds of all the flavor additives that are sold in the United States. At first, the excerpt from his book seems like it must be building to some harsh, persuasive conclusion about the food industry, in lines such as, â€Å"the manipulation of volatile chemicals to create a particular smell. The basic science behind the scent of your shaving cream is the same as that governing the flavor of your TV dinner† (Schlosser 361). At this point, Schlosser comes off as one of the countless authors who prey on the average American reader—the uninformed and gullibl e person who knows â€Å"volatile† to mean liable to sudden violence and who thinks â€Å"chemicals† to mean toxic compounds like arsenic and hydrogen cyanide, rather than knowing that a volatile chemical is a scientific class of liquids that includes such harmless ingredients as water and rubbing alcohol. Schlosser continues to expound on the formation of recognizable flavors, revealing that perfume companies created the first flavor additives and listing by, their full and lengthy names, all forty-nine ingredients in an artificial strawberry flavor. These and many other instances in the passage seem prime opportunities for the author to follow up an analysis with a powerful argument against the inventors, against the marketers, against the manufacturers, against something—but Schlosser proceeds in an unexpectedly non-confrontational tone. While he doesnt take the care to list them out in another massive paragraph, he concedes that a the smell of a real strawbe rry is comprised by over 350 chemicals. Although criticism of the industry is apparent upon examination of Schlossers diction and phrasing, it is generally veiled by his human error: his inability to remain critical of processes and research by which he is so impressed. He describes his sampling of an artificial flavor in the sentences, â€Å"Graingers most remarkable creation took me by surprise. After closing my eyes, I suddenly smelled a grilled hamburger. The aroma was uncanny, almost miraculous. It smelled like someone in the room was flipping burgers on a hot grill. But when I opened my eyes, there was just a narrow strip of white paper and a smiling flavorist† (Schlosser 368). Even if the author will decide to persuade against or denigrate the processed food industry in the rest of the book, the message this passage conveys is mostly informative and oddly reassuring.

Thursday, May 28, 2020

SWOT and Porter Five Forces Analysis of British Petroleum - 275 Words

SWOT and Porter Five Forces Analysis of British Petroleum (BP) (Essay Sample) Content: SWOT and Porter Five Forces Analysis of British Petroleum (BP) AbstractBP Plc is one of the leading oil and gas companies in the world operating in more than 80 countries and serving close to 13 million customers. The company was ranked third in the FTSE 100 all share index ranking as at the close of 31st August, 2014 with a market capitalization of 82,093.2, million US Dollars. BP's major strengths include strong brand recognition, massive financial capability, excellent corporate strategy, and the ability to innovate. Global reduction in the production of crude oil and natural gas, poor disaster management and inability to implement long-term regulatory mechanisms are the company's key weaknesses. The company has the opportunity to invest in alternative energy even though it faces significant competition from key rivals such as Royal Dutch Shell, Exxon Mobil and Chevron. Porters Five Forces Analysis of BP reveal low threat of new entrants and substitutes, medium bar gaining power of both buyers and suppliers, and high rivalry among existing competitors. To remain competitive, the company should increase strategic investment in RD, negotiate with governments and other firms to exploit emerging markets, rebuild its brand value and streamline its production and business operation. Introduction Founded in 1908, British Petroleum (BP) is one of the leading oil and gas companies in the world. The company operations in more than 80 countries, has over 83,900 employees and serves over 13 million customers globally (BP Plc, 2014). The company provides customers with oil and gas products, fuel for transportation, petrochemical products and energy for light and heat. With a market capitalization of 82,093.2, million US Dollars, BP was ranked Third in the FTSE 100 all share index ranking as at the close of 31st August, 2014 (Stock Challenge, 2012). BP's interests and activities can be categorised into two core business segments: Refining and Marketing an d Exploration and Production. The Exploration and Production segments cover upstream and midstream activities which include exploration, production, pipelining, and processing. Refining and Marketing segments cover downstream activities such as crude oil transportation, manufacturing, marketing and supply of both petrochemical and petroleum products and services (BP Plc. 2014). BP SWOT Analysis BP's key strengths are its strong brand recognition and massive financial capability. Being the third largest energy company in the world, it is globally acknowledged for high quality petroleum products. Additionally, with an expected total operating cash flow of 2014 at $30 billion, the company's strong financial position gives it the opportunity to introduce new products, develop alternative energy, and expand to new markets (Reuters, 2014). Regarded as one of the best in the world, the company's corporate strategy is also a notable strength. This, coupled with its strong brand loyalty, en abled it to emerge from the devastating deepwater horizon oil spill of 2010 (Reuters, 2014). The company's ability to innovate and enter into strategic ventures with other governments and corporations in new markets is another key strength. In 2013, BP entered into a strategic alliance with both China and the US to provide alternative solar energy to a number of government agencies. A global reduction in the production of crude oil and natural gas is a key weakness of the company. Poor public image as a result of the North Alaska and deep water oil spills also led to serious challenges for the company. Not only did it face criminal charges, it spent an estimated $42.2 billion in cleanup and compensation (Reuters, 2014). Another key weakness is its non-competitiveness in the alternative energy sector. Despite being a major player in the oil industry, majority of consumers are still unaware of the company's involvement in alternative energy. The inability to implement long-term reg ulatory mechanism to cushion it from the highly volatile petroleum prices is also a key weakness of the company. BP's profits and its current strong financial position presents an opportunity for the company to initiate new projects. The company's biggest opportunity is investing in alternative energy. The BP Solar Home Solutions initially introduced in New York can be expanded into other regions especially within the American and European markets. This will guarantee the company more customers who prefer the less costly solar energy. The company also has an opportunity to expand its export markets to Asia and South America. Discoveries of more oil wells and increasing prices of oil and gas are additional opportunities that the company can take advantage of. Major players in the oil and gas industry especially the Royal Dutch Shell, Exxon Mobil, and Chevron pose the greatest threat to BP. The implementation of environmentally unsound policy and poor management of natural disast ers such as the toxic spills often disrupt the company's operation. Other threats include, corrosion in BP's pipeline network, occasional refinery explosions, multiple lawsuits emanating from ecological disasters and the continued sale of BP's corporate owned stations. Declining operations in several potential locations and the tensions associated with operating in the oil business are also potential threats. Porters Five Forces Analysis of BP Porter (1980, p. 80) outlines the five forces model to analyze an organization's competiveness. These include threats of entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, threats of substitutes and rivalry among existing competitors. The oil and gas industry in which BP operates traditionally require massive financial investments in very expensive infrastructure. Huge capital investment is necessary to cover expenses such as building pipelines, drilling wells, building access roads and acquiring land. BP has an asset value o f $236.0 billion (Honnungar, 2011). Considering the cost of market entry and economies of scale in the industry, the threat of new entrance is low. There are a number of substitute products such as hydroelectricity, nuclear energy, coal, wind power and solar energy. However, most are still in the developmental phase, besides, the cost of production of substitute products is often extremely high. The importance of oil in fuelling cars, running industries and generating electricity makes it essential and useful to sectors of the economy. Threats of substitutes is therefore, low since alternative products are less competitive. The oil and gas industry have considerable number of suppliers ranging from private corporations to governments. There are also a number of potential buyers similar to BP. Besides, BP's vertical integration in its operations is similar to that of its key competitors (Stiel, 2003). The bargaining power of suppliers is consequent...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Experiencing Urbanization Via Life Story Method - 1734 Words

Experiencing Urbanization via Life-Story Method Urbanization of lands in China have had a prominent effect on the lives of its people, including the inhabitants of both the peripheral and central cities throughout the country. In Eating Bitterness: Stories from the Front Lines of China s Great Urban Migration, Michelle Loyalka writes about the changes that a developing China brings onto the people of Gan Jia Zhai, a village that is relatively close to Xi’an, a much more developed and industrialized city. The struggles and triumphs of Gan Jia Zhai’s people are depicted in Loyalka’s fifth chapter, The Landless Landlords. On another hand, the documentary China Rises depicts the rapid urbanization of Shanghai, a â€Å"mega-city†, and how it has affected the lives of many of it’s inhabitants from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Specifically, Wei Chin’s particular experience in Shanghai can be examined to distinguish what urbanization has done to alter her everyday life in the mega-city. Both works use the life-story method to capture the hardships that both the inhabitants of rural and urban spaces encounter during the time course of urbanization of their surroundings . Using the case studies performed on the Tao family and on Wei Chin’s, one can conclude that rapid large scale shifts influence and alter the quality of life of an urbanizing city’s peripheral and central populations. Loyalka’s fifth chapter The Landless Landlords introduces Wang Tao, a former farmer, and hisShow MoreRelatedE Commerce in Thailand5356 Words   |  22 PagesProducts on these websites ranges from pet food, packaged foods, clothes and footwear, to electronic appliances and consumer electronics. Furthermore, they also provide services such as booking air ticket online or selling properties and insurance via the websites. 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The drink mainly targets young students and urban professionals. It is exclusively produced in Austria and then distributed around the world via a network of local subsidiaries and external importers and distributors. The key factor of the brand’s success is Red Bull’s marketing strategy, mainly known as â€Å"buzz marketing†, an art that involves the trendsetters in any community to carry theRead MoreInstitution as the Fundamental Cause of Long Tern Growth39832 Words   |  160 Pagesextract from the rest of society, since such rents would encourage them to opt for a set of economic institutions that make the expropriation of others possible. These comparative statics therefore place political institutions at the center of the story, as emphasized by our term â€Å"hierarchy of institutions† above. Political institutions are essential both because they determine the constraints on the use of (de facto and de jure) political power and also which groups hold de jure political power inRead MoreAmerican Literature11652 Words   |  47 Pagesdemocratic utopia use of reason history is an act of individual and national self-assertion Genre/Style: ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · political pamphlets travel writing highly ornate writing style fiction employs generic plots and characters fiction often tells the story of how an innocent young woman is tested by a seductive male Effect: ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · patriotism grows instills pride creates common agreement about issues shows differences between Americans and Europeans Historical Context: ï‚ · ï‚ · tells readersRead MoreCarrefour Case Study23561 Words   |  95 Pagesglobal procurement centers coordinated through Shanghai and Hong Kong. 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Consequently, the fundamental purpose of transportRead MoreCarrefour Case Study16000 Words   |  64 Pagesprocurement centers coordinated through Shanghai and Hong Kong. (p. C 76) o In order to increase its profitability, in 2000 Carrefour created the GNX online supply platform with Oracle and Sears, whereby suppliers and retailers can exchange information via the Internet and optimize the flow of merchandise, thus reducing their administrative costs. (p. C 76) o Managing the supply chain was another major challenge. (p. C 78) o Taiwanese suppliers lacked rigor, organization, equipment, and aggressivenessRead MoreWhy Ability Assessments Dont Cross Cultures10050 Words   |  41 Pagesthanks to StevenLopez for valuable suggestions concerningrevisions. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Patricia M. Greenfield,Departmentof Psychology,Universityof California, LosAngeles,CA 90095. Electronicmail may be sent via Internet to 1115 utilitarian practice requires potential universality in each of these areas. However, as I show in this article, this requirement is often not met. Values and meaning. For a test to travel freely, (a)Read MoreWhat Are the Major Issues That Cause Inner City Youth to Join Gangs and Become Delinquent? Discuss Whether the New Labour Government’s Policies Have Been Effective in Solving These Issues?8138 Words   |  33 PagesHopelessness, emphasised by lack of job opportunities * Inadequate skills, education, or employment qualifications * Media, music and popular culture influences * Lure of Power and Money, particularly through the drug trade * Unstable family life with little parental control * Cultural environment that highly values immediate gratification * Unmet needs for safety, a sense of belonging, and secure emotional relationships. * Low self esteem On the Home office website cited (15-12-09)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bio Anthro - 1721 Words

1.) In a plant having two carried alleles for the color of a flower in a gene, with P for purple and p for white, the three possible combinations which might exist in any one plant are PP making a purple plant, pp to make a white plant, or Pp resulting in a ‘hybrid’ plant. 2.) Out of the genotypes PP, Pp, pp, the resultant flower colors are (as described above in exercise 1) are purple (for PP,) purple or purplish-white (for Pp- likely purple as it is dominant, or a mixture of the colors,) or white (for the case of pp.) PP and pp, the purple and white flowers, are referred to as homozygous. In the case of PP this is homozygous dominant, and in the case of pp this is homozygous recessive. The case of Pp must be considered different, and is†¦show more content†¦Answering the second question, there is a 50 percent chance of a colorblind son; answering the third question, there is a 25 percent change of colorblind daughter. (Fourth:) There is a change of normal vision: a 25 percent of a carrier. (Fifth:) According to the square, there is no chance of a normal son. 7.) A: The genotypes are TTCC, TTCc, TtCC, and TtCc. B: The genotypes are ttCC and ttCC. C: The genotypes are TTcc and Ttcc. D: This genotype would be ttcc. E: This genotype would be TtCc. F: Such a person could produce TT, Tt, tt, CC, Cc, and cc gametes. Critical questions 1.) The difference between incomplete dominance and codominance is the level of sharing. In codominance the dominant trait is shared, while in incomplete dominance the dominant is not completely expressed in the genotype. Though the result may be similar in the phenotype, the cause of this is different, which is a reason that this concept is so important to understand. 2.) When a trait is sex linked, this means that it is linked to the chromosome of the gender. This does not mean the trait is passed through sex (however it is,) but rather refers to the X and Y chromosomes. Some traits are only specific to Y chromosomes or a combination of X and Y (or not be expressed when only onShow MoreRelatedCase Study814 Words   |  4 Pagessaid with a puzzled look on her face. You are modified as well? She asked, trying to wrap her head around the concept. From what she overheard in the board room about his company an what he had told her in the lab, she knew that his business was in bio-tech, but not sure how he became the head of it. She chewed on her lip as he spoke, glancing up as he stroked her chin.Well, what the hell, maybe I should. FX-01 thought to herself as he extended his leg toward her. She gave a sharp grin and reachedRead More Comparing How Various Anthropologists Discovered Anthropology as a Career2285 Words   |  10 PagesG. Cultural Anthropology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983. Hortense Powdermaker. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary. 1988.;1/bioSHY;graphies/thorton Linguistics. Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology: vol. 1, 1996. Linguistics. The New Encyclopedia Britannica: vol. 7, 1993. Mead, Margaret. Leaders of Modem Anthropology: Ruth Benedict. New York: Columbia

Probation And Parole - 1305 Words

The history of probation and parole influences the decisions that are made in the Adult Court System toward the supervision of adult offenders by considering community corrections and involve supervision in the community. In the criminal justice system, there are many individuals locked up in local, state, and federal institutions. John Augustus probation bears much resemblance to probation as it is practiced today. He took great care in deciding which prisoners were promising candidates for probation. He also considers the offender’s character, age and factors that would have an impact on the offender after being released. His efforts actually were resisted by police, court clerks, and turnkeys who were paid only when offenders were incarcerated (Klein, 1997). The punishment for violating probation or parole is to continue supervision or to withdraw and incarcerate the offender. The selection of these decisions was either too light or strict for the conditions of the vio lation. The type of services in adult supervision is determined by how the offender presents on several areas. The primary goal is to build a strong and safe community by advancing prospects for individuals on probation or parole to move out of the criminal justice system. A certain percentage of those under the responsibility of the criminal justice system are supervised on probation or parole. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (1997), nearly 2 percent or 3.8 million adult men and womenShow MoreRelatedProbation Parole : Probation And Parole1541 Words   |  7 PagesProbation and Parole Probation and parole their role in the criminal justice program. How well does society accept this program and the people? Is probation/parole effective and why. How the probation and parole system is governed and how effective is it? Probation vs Parole differ in regard to the period during which an offender is placed under supervision. Is probation effective and why. When an individual is supervised as an alternative to imprisonment it is known as probation. The probationRead MoreProbation And Parole : Probation Parole1624 Words   |  7 Pages Probation and Parole Jenifer R. Roberts Brown Mackie College Introduction If you would ever find yourself facing jail time, or getting out of prison, then this is somethings you should know. There is important information on the future you will face if you are on probation or parole. Also included is the beginning of the probation and parole systems, the conditions of both, and some legal issues that are entailed with them. This paper will discuss and inform youRead MoreProbation : Probation And Parole1544 Words   |  7 PagesProbation and Parole Probation and parole their role in the criminal justice program. How well does society accept this program and the people? Is probation/parole effective and why. How the probation and parole system is governed and how effective is it? Probation v s Parole differs in regard to the period during which an offender is placed under supervision. Is probation effective and why. When an individual is supervised as an alternative to imprisonment, it is known as probation. The probationRead MoreParole and Probation1107 Words   |  5 Pageselectronic surveillance also know as house arrest, shock probation, intensive supervision, residential community supervision etc. The most common punishment used by the justice system is probation as well as parole. Probation is the release of an offender from detention , subject to a period of good behavior under supervision. An individual may be granted probation as an alternative to prison and sometimes may be given probation after incarceration. Parole on the other hand is the release of a prisoner temporarilyRead MoreProbation Parole And Parole Case1367 Words   |  6 Pages Approximately 1 in 51 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2013, the lowest rate observed since 1996 (Herberman Bonczar, 2014, p.1). Probation/parole supervision also known as co mmunity supervision, helps individuals (ex-criminals) acclimate back in their community. Probation is used when a judge chooses to let the offender serve his sentence under officer supervision in the community, rather than in prison. It is usually given to individuals that have committedRead MoreProbation Parole And Probation Case Essay1348 Words   |  6 Pages History of Parole and Probation Jindarat Innuan Student #0913685 CCJ 1020 Hillsborough Community College Prof. Leonardo Cadogan November 26th, 2014 The purpose of this research paper is to discuss about Parole and Probation in America. The paper is going to focus on the past, present and future of parole and probation. This paper includes discussion of Parole and Probation Officers, as well as why some states so longer utilize parole, including Florida. This paper will also include personalRead MoreProbation Parole And Parole For The Year 20133135 Words   |  13 PagesIn 2014 the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a report regarding probation and parole for the year 2013, the most recent year for which data is available. The report noted that by the end of that year there were an estimated 4,751,400 adults serving probation or parole; women accounted for 25% (Herberman Bonczar, 2014). The number of women on probation and parole doubled between 1990 and 2003, which led to research into the best practices for women offenders (Sydney, 2005). In addition toRead MoreDefinition Of Adult Probation And Parole953 Words   |   4 Pagesâ€Å"implement the Census of Adult Probation Supervising Agencies (CAPSA), 2014. This will be the first census of its kind in more than 20 years. It will provide current information on the organization and nature of adult probation in the United States† (Community Corrections (Probation and Parole), 2015). Such census would provide valuable information regarding the current state of the community corrections program: probation. As stated before in this research, both probation and parole have imperfections whichRead MoreProbation And Parole And Juvenile Offenders Essay1384 Words   |  6 Pages Probation and parole were unknown concepts until the early 19th century. Just over one-hundred years old, the emphasis has moved from the offender to concern for the welfare of the community, altogether public safety. Probation and parole accommodates the offender by allowing them to reenter or remain in society, while they serve their sentences. Today, the probation and parole agencies in the United States handle millions and only sixty percent of probationers complete their obligations successfullyRead MoreThe Punishment Mechanisms Of Probation And Parole Essay1844 Words   |  8 Pagesof probation and parole developed from different social circumstances, which were driven by the need for alternative means to imprisonment. The creation of the mechanisms for probation can be linked to the moral panic caused by the excess consumption of alcohol and the increased amount of alcohol-related offences. In contrast, the development of parole was the result of the systems at the time, fa iling to deliver the expected results. This essay will outline the different origins of probation and

Superstitions About Rats free essay sample

One can also tell that Aniline prefers living in a ‘pretend’ world rather than being realistic about matters. Aniline’s superstitions play a huge role in how she lives her life and how others perceive her as a person. These superstitions limit her opportunities and play a role in Aniline having a negative perception of life. There are two very similar settings that are portrayed in the story: One being at Anilines school, which is described to be very poor – handed down uniforms, scorched quad and chicken-wire fence surrounding their school, and the other being at Anilines home which is a way out of town on her mother’s struggling farm. I will be discussing the way in which the extract, when contextualised, helps with the understanding and discussion of Aniline as a character. In the opening paragraph of ‘Superstitions About Rats’, Aniline reveals that she prefers algebra to geometry, because in algebra there are ‘what-if’ questions. This reveals that Aniline becomes paranoid when there is only one answer, which could also suggest that Aniline prefers to have many answers in her life, rather than one set answer. This also indicates that Aniline prefers to live in a world of make believe, where certain events determine the future, rather than facing the real world where people are responsible for their own lives and future. During lunch at school, when Aniline, Neo and Lindi meet on the grass, Aniline suggests ‘The Test’ to determine who will be prefects, and who will not. This shows Aniline’s need for her superstitions to determine her future as a scholar. Instead of working hard and doing extra work to prove herself as responsible enough for the leadership role as a school prefect, Aniline believes that only ‘The Test’ will determine if she becomes a prefect or not. Becoming a school prefect or not has a huge impact on Aniline’s future; it would help her to better het education by being invited to attend a private girls’ school. However, there are also other options that Aniline could investigate in order to obtain a scholarship at the private girls’ school: Aniline could have dedicated herself to her studies and could have obtained a scholarship, or she could have asked her father to pay for her studies. On page 141, Aniline is waiting for someone to pick her up at school. While she is waiting, Aniline decides to play a game where she predicted that if the next car that she saw was her mother’s, she would get the scholarship, and after that, if the car after the next was her mother’s, her mom would write to her father and ask him to pay for the private school. We learn that Aniline’s father has the means to pay for her private school education, but instead of simply asking her mother to write to her father, she relies on oncoming cars to determine the outcomes. This shows that Aniline does not do something to try improve her circumstances. Aniline’s mother plays a large role on Aniline’s use of superstitions to determine her life. On page 142 when Aniline gets home her mother asks if her daughter is a prefect, and Aniline tells her that they have not yet heard. Her mom replies with â€Å"Well, if the ants still come after you’ve cleaned up that sugar, it’ll mean you’re getting it, OK? This shows her use of superstitions, and the reader can only assume that these superstitions have been used throughout Aniline’s life since a young age. Another instance where Aniline’s mom makes use of superstitions to determine their future is when she asked Aniline to count all the stars that were inside the ring around the moon, and the amount of stars would symbolise the amount of days in which the rain would start. Aniline also made use of a superstition to determine of there would be rain or not, which would determine the success of her mother’s farm with planting mielies. Aniline believed that if the chickens were quiet, there would not be rain. This shows that Aniline and her mother both rely on their superstitions for success, and when their superstitions don’t go the way they want them to, they do not try to do anything about it or make an alternative plan. On page 145, Theo slapped Aniline across the face because she dropped a bottle and the ashtray, which caused the bottle to break and Theo’s friend’s foot being cut open. After being slapped, Aniline went straight to her room; she did not confront Theo for slapping her or tell him that she feels that it was not necessary. This relates to the extract where Mrs Coetzee tells Aniline to start saying something or doing something. On the last page, page 149, Mrs Coetzee requested to speak to Aniline. She told her that she had not been chosen to be a prefect at their school. After hearing the bad news, Aniline did not say anything in return or ask any questions regarding the matter. This shows Aniline’s acceptance that her superstitions were right and were the reason she did not get the responsibility of prefect. In conclusion, the reader can see through Aniline’s actions throughout the story that she chooses not to say anything or do anything to improve or control her circumstances or future, she only relies on her superstitions to control her life, and does not stand up for herself or fight for her goals. Aniline is a character that does not develop during the story. The use of Aniline’s superstitions is proof that she chooses to live in a world of many possibilities and not in the real world where you determine your own destiny.